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The oldest Chinese astronomy records date to before the Warring States period (476–221 BC).
The oldest Chinese graphical representation of the sky is a lacquer box dated to 430 BC, although this depiction does not show individual stars.
A total of 1,345 stars are drawn, grouped into 257 asterisms.
Tools utilizing a star chart include the astrolabe and the planisphere. Rappenglueck has suggested that a panel in the same caves depicting a charging bison, a man with a bird's head and the head of a bird on top of a piece of wood, together may depict the summer triangle, which at the time was a circumpolar formation.In Muslim astronomy, the first star chart to be drawn accurately was most likely the illustrations produced by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi in his 964 work titled Book of Fixed Stars.This book was an update of parts VII.5 and VIII.1 of the 2nd century Almagest star catalogue by Ptolemy.During the Song dynasty, the Chinese astronomer Su Song wrote a book titled Xin Yixiang Fa Yao (New Design for the Armillary Clock) containing five maps of 1,464 stars. In 1193, the astronomer Huang Shang prepared a planisphere along with explanatory text.
It was engraved in stone in 1247, and this chart still exists in the Wen Miao temple in Suzhou.It is a planisphere depicting the zodiac in graphical representations. The oldest surviving manuscript star chart was discovered in the Mogao Caves along the Silk Road – the Dunhuang Star Chart.